By Guy G. Stroumsa
We see the be aware “religion” all over, but can we comprehend what it capability, and is there a constant around the world figuring out? Who stumbled on faith and in what context? In a brand new technological know-how, man Stroumsa bargains an cutting edge and strong argument that the comparative research of faith reveals its beginning in early glossy Europe. the area during which this new class emerged used to be marked through 3 significant old and highbrow phenomena: the increase of eu empires, that gave delivery to ethnological interest; the Reformation, which completely altered Christianity; and the discovery of philology, a self-discipline that remodeled Western highbrow suggestion. by contrast advanced old backdrop, Stroumsa publications us throughout the lives and writings of the boys who got here to outline the note “religion.” As Stroumsa boldly argues, the trendy research of faith, a brand new technology, used to be made attainable via a dialectical technique among Catholic and Protestant students. historical Israelite faith, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Manichaeanism, Zoroastrianism, the sacred ideals of the hot international, and people of Greece, Rome, India, and China, composed the complicated floor upon which “religion,” a latest type, used to be stumbled on.
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Extra resources for A New Science: The Discovery of Religion in the Age of Reason
He, too, cannot forgive Jean-Jacques for his own sin. But with the Frenchman, the outcome is different. The Gentlemen proclaim virtue and cannot forgive Jean-Jacques for actually living it without any self-interest. The Frenchman’s sin is an injustice against Jean-Jacques in that he has defamed Jean-Jacques. The text explicitly raises the question of whether the Frenchman and Jean-Jacques will ever be reconciled. , he turned out on the contrary to be a simple, sensitive, and good man, whose innocence—universally recognized by the very people who treat him with such indignity—forced you to give him back your esteem and to reproach yourself for the harsh judgments you made of him.
1:735). This form is sacred, and the sacred is being profaned by this system for “the ﬁrst time since the world began” (CW 1:58; Pl. 1:735). It inspires horror in Rousseau because its principles “reverse all principles of justice and morality” (CW 1:75; Pl. 1:756). The right to pardon, according to Rousseau, is based on the right to punish, and that, in turn, is based on the prior conviction of the criminal. Absent the conviction, all this talk of pardon is “deceptive and false” (CW 1:65; Pl. 1:743).
The difference between the ethereal realms and the underground is clear. In the ethereal realms, there are no obstacles. There is nothing to trip Jean-Jacques. He follows his desires, and they lead instantaneously to their objects, which he enjoys without regret. In the underground, everything is an obstacle. His desire is the assurance that he will not be satisﬁed. But the place where these two different realms meet is Jean-Jacques himself. On the one hand, he is “the human being least destined for hatred, who never had either the interest or desire to harm another, who never either did, wished, or rendered harm to anyone; who, without jealousy, without competitiveness, without aspiration, and always keeping to himself, was not an obstacle to anyone else” (CW 1:173; Pl.
A New Science: The Discovery of Religion in the Age of Reason by Guy G. Stroumsa