By Philip Eubanks
This examine by way of Philip Eubanks demanding situations conventional bills of metaphor and considerably expands theories of "conceptual" metaphor via reading alternate Is battle because it happens in concrete discourse.
Although scholarly curiosity in metaphor as a cultured, linguistic, and cognitive phenomenon has lengthy continued, Eubanks is likely one of the first to contemplate metaphor in its sociohistorical position. wondering significant bills of metaphor from Aristotle to the current, Eubanks argues that metaphor isn't just prompted via yet really is constituted by means of its concrete operation.
Far-reaching in its implications for our figuring out of metaphor, Eubanks's premise allows us to determine metaphor as a sweeping rhetorical entity whilst it bills for the extra localized operations of metaphor of curiosity to linguists, philosophers of language, and cognitive scientists. supplying a brand new version of metaphoric functioning, Eubanks reconsiders the main promising account of metaphor thus far, the suggestion of "conceptual metaphor."
Eubanks makes a speciality of the conceptual metaphor alternate Is War-a metaphor discovered anyplace humans talk about company and commerce-to advance his rhetorical version of metaphor. He analyzes exchange Is warfare because it happens in the print information media, on tv dialogue indicates, in educational works, in renowned nonfiction and novels, in ancient financial observation, and in concentration workforce speak. whereas those examples do demonstrate a wealthy type within the makeup of alternate Is conflict, even more than mere style is at stake.
Trade Is conflict is implicated in a longer and rhetorically complicated dialog with different metaphors and literal options: alternate is peace, exchange Is a online game, exchange Is Friendship, exchange is a trip, and Markets Are bins. the popularity and research of this constituting dialog furthers a reevaluation conception. What additionally emerges, in spite of the fact that, is a priceless portrait of the discourse of exchange itself, a discourse that relies importantly upon a responsive interchange of metaphors.
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Extra resources for A War of Words in the Discourse of Trade: The Rhetorical Constitution of Metaphor
However, more than a systematic relation is always at work. As Lakoff and Johnson point out, conceptual metaphors arise both from our bodilycognitive experience and from our sociocultural experience—which, I argue, cannot be separated from rhetoric. Rhetoric has entailments that are different in kind from systematic entailments. For instance, while Trade Is War systematically relates to Markets Are Containers, the systematic relation never occurs—in the current, concrete discourse of trade—without a simultaneous rhetorical entailment, an effect of the concretely progressing rhetoric of trade.
They lack a discursive trajectory other than the theorist’s meta-stance, which tacitly precedes each example with if I were to say. But when both theorists and experimental subjects express and comprehend metaphors, they are sensitive to discursive trajectories. The meta-stance attached to examples must necessarily influence understanding. When the theorist implicitly utters if I were to say, the utterance blocks out a rich gamut of possible discursive trajectories. This does not entirely disqualify free-standing examples, but it does give them a distinct meta-status and limits their usefulness.
In short, no matter how we may insist upon the fiction of an isolable metaphoric expression, no metaphor can be separated from its discursive, rhetorical milieu. It is impossible for a metaphor to be uttered except by a concrete, historically situated speaker. Thus, every metaphor is inflected by a range of discursive forces: politics, philosophy, economics, social class, professional alignments, individual perceptions, and so on. Beginning from this premise, analyses of metaphoric exemplars must have very different results.
A War of Words in the Discourse of Trade: The Rhetorical Constitution of Metaphor by Philip Eubanks