By Philip W. Harvey
The adrenal gland is extremely important to future health and secretes hormones that keep watch over many physically procedures starting from common metabolism to the reaction to annoying situations. The corticosteroid hormones are the foundation for anti inflammatory medicinal drugs and are very broadly prescribed. adjustments within the functionality of the adrenal gland, both obviously via tension or affliction, or in the course of the motion of substances and chemical substances, could have a massive impression at the body.; this article specializes in adrenal toxicity, interpreting how medicines and chemical substances can at once and in some way have an effect on this gland. assurance contains: class of the kinds of adrenal and endocrine toxicity; the mechanistic and molecular foundation of toxicity; the reason why the adrenal is the commonest goal organ within the endocrine procedure; drug toxicity particular to sufferers with adrenal problems; drug- corticosteroid interactions; adversarial drug reactions; and the way the adrenal gland is essential in tolerance to poisonous insult.
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Additional resources for Adrenal in Toxicology: TargetOrgan and Modulator of Toxicity
3 Cross-section through a normal dog adrenal gland. G, Zona glomerulosa; F, zona fasciculata; R, zona reticularis. Doniach. and contain abundant lipid droplets which occupy 10–15% of the cell volume (Rhodin 1971). In man the cells of the zona fasciculata are termed clear cells. The zona reticularis is the innermost zone of the adrenal cortex. Compared with the zona fasciculata, the cells are fewer, smaller and arranged in clusters. The zona reticularis comprises only about 5% of the total cortical volume in the rat, as compared with 25% in the human.
The significance of these medullary arteries appears to vary according to the species. 4 The vasculature of the mammalian adrenal gland. ZG, Zona glomerulosa; ZF, zona fasciculata; ZR, zona reticularis. The inset figure shows the relationship between a cortical sinus and zona fasciculata cells. Figure reproduced with permission from Vinson et al. (1992). 28 Adrenal morphology and hormone synthesis and regulation the rat there are few medullary arteries, around six per gland, and these are unlikely to have a major functional role.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is secreted by the cardiac atrium in response to volume expansion and high plasma sodium concentration (Atlas 1986). This hormone acts on the kidney to cause natriuresis and inhibition of renin release, and also acts on the adrenal zona glomerulosa to inhibit aldosterone secretion (Kudo & Baird 1984, Atlas 1986). In dogs, rats and humans, this inhibitory effect is specific to the zona glomerulosa as glucocorticoid secretion is not affected by ANP (Maack et al. 1984, Atarashi et al.
Adrenal in Toxicology: TargetOrgan and Modulator of Toxicity by Philip W. Harvey