By Richard Drake PhD FAAA, A. Wayne Vogl PhD FAAA, Adam W. M. Mitchell MB BS FRCS FRCR, Richard Tibbitts, Paul Richardson
Gray's Atlas of Anatomy, the significant other source to the preferred Gray's Anatomy for college students, presents a bright, visible depiction of anatomical constructions. Newly up-to-date with a wealth of fabric to facilitate learn, this clinical textbook demonstrates the correlation of constructions with acceptable scientific photos and floor anatomy - crucial for correct id within the dissection lab and winning guidance for path checks. Clinically concentrated, continuously and obviously illustrated all through, and logically geared up, Gray's Atlas of Anatomy makes it more uncomplicated than ever to grasp the basic anatomy wisdom you need!
- Build in your current anatomy knowledge with buildings awarded from a superficial to deep orientation, representing a logical development throughout the body.
- Identify a few of the anatomical constructions of the body and better comprehend their relationships to one another with the visible tips of approximately 1,000 exquisitely illustrated anatomical figures.
- Visualize the scientific correlation among anatomical buildings and floor landmarks with floor anatomy photos overlaid with anatomical drawings.
- Recognize anatomical constructions as they found in practice via greater than 270 scientific photos - together with laparoscopic, radiologic, surgical, ophthalmoscopic, otoscopic, and different medical perspectives - positioned adjoining to anatomic art for side-by-side comparison.
- Quickly entry and assessment key information with extra scientific correlations, as well as new precis Tables on the finish of every bankruptcy that conceal suitable muscular tissues, nerves, and arteries.
- Gain a whole figuring out of cranial nerves through a brand-new Cranial Nerve Review part that gives a visible consultant of the nerves, a desk of reflexes, and an extra desk of nerve lesions.
- Access the full contents, dissection movies, and self-assessment questions on-line at Student Consult.com.
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Additional info for Gray's Atlas of Anatomy, 2e
Radiograph, AP view Transverse process Tubercle of rib Spinous process Thoracic vertebra with rib articulations. CT image in axial plane Superior articular process Superior vertebral notch Body Costal facet Superior articular facet Transverse process Spinous process Body Vertebral foramen Pedicle Superior articular facet Inferior vertebral notch Transverse process Spinous process TXII vertebra (superior view) Inferior articular facet Inferior articular process TXII vertebra (lateral view) 27 2 BACK • Lumbar vertebrae Spinous process Vertebral body LI Vertebral body of LI LII Spinous process Intervertebral disc Transverse process LIII Intervertebral foramen LIV Zygapophysial joint Intervertebral disc Vertebral body of LV LV Lumbar vertebrae (lateral view) Lumbar region of vertebral column.
THE BODY • Lymphatic system Pharyngeal tonsil Submandibular nodes Palatine tonsil Lingual tonsil Thoracic duct Cervical lymph nodes Left subclavian vein Right lymphatic duct Right subclavian vein Efferent lymphatic vessel Axillary lymph nodes Thymus gland Cortex (containing lymphocytes and macrophages) Tracheal lymph nodes Lymphatic vessels of the upper limb Thoracic duct Cubital nodes Spleen Reticular fiber Trabecula Valve Cisterna chyli Small intestine Intestinal lymph nodes Lymph nodules in small intestine (Peyer’s patch) Large intestine Appendix Medullary sinus Iliac lymph nodes Deep lymph nodes Capsule Lymph Afferent lymphatic vessels Structure of a lymph node Femoral lymph nodes Inguinal lymph nodes Bone marrow Popliteal lymph nodes Lymphatic vessels of the lower limb Drainage of the right lymphatic duct Drainage of the thoracic duct Principal components of the lymphatic system 12 Nervous system Trigeminal nerve [V] Cervical plexus Brachial plexus Phrenic nerve Axillary nerve Musculocutaneous nerve Radial nerve Intercostal nerves Median nerve Ulnar nerve Conus medullaris Cauda equina Lumbar plexus Superficial branch of radial nerve Deep branch of radial nerve Femoral nerve Sacral plexus Median nerve Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve Ulnar nerve Sciatic nerve Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Cranial nerves Central nervous system (CNS) Obturator nerve Posterior cutaneous nerve Brain Tibial nerve Spinal cord Spinal nerves Common fibular nerve Sural nerve Saphenous nerve Superficial fibular nerve Deep fibular nerve Tibial nerve Sural nerve 13 1 THE BODY • Sympathetics Peripheral Organs Thoracic visceral plexuses T1 Preganglionic sympathetic nerves follow somatic nerves to periphery (glands, smooth muscle) Heart Prevertebral plexus L2 Abdominal viscera Sympathetic ganglion Sympathetic trunk Pelvic viscera Preganglionic sympathetic Postganglionic sympathetic Ganglion impar All sympathetic visceral efferent (motor) nerves originate from spinal levels T1–L2 and pass into the associated spinal nerves 14 Parasympathetics [III] Pupillary constriction Ciliary ganglion Lacrimal gland Pterygopalatine ganglion [VII] Parotid gland [IX] Sublingual gland Otic ganglion [X] Thoracic visceral plexuses Cranial parasympathetic outflow via cranial nerves Sumandibular gland Submandibular ganglion Heart Sacral parasympathetic outflow via pelvic splanchnic nerves Prevertebral plexus Transition from supply by [X] to pelvic splanchnic nerves Synapse with nerve cells of enteric system Abdominal viscera S2–S4 Erectile tissues of penis (or clitoris in women) Preganglionic parasympathetic Postganglionic parasympathetic Pelvic viscera All paraympathetic visceral efferent (motor) nerves emerge from the brain in cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X and from spinal levels S2–S4 15 1 THE BODY • Dermatomes [V1] C2 Cranial nerve [V] (Trigeminal nerve) [V2] [V3] C3 C2 C4 C3 C4 T2 T3 T2 T4 T3 C5 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 L1 L2 L3 L4 C5 T4 T5 T6 T2 C5 T2 T7 T8 T9 T10 T1 T1 T1 T1 L5 T11 T12 C6 C5 C6 C6 C6 S3 L1 S4 C8 C8 C8 C7 L2 C8 C7 C7 C7 L2 S2 L3 S2 L3 L3 L3 Trigeminal L4 L5 L4 Cervical L5 Thoracic Lumbar L5 L5 L4 L4 Sacral S1 S1 S1 Dermatome map (cutaneous distribution of nerves) 16 S1 Cutaneous nerves Greater occipital nerve C2 Supraclavicular nerves (from cervical plexus) C3,4 Lateral cutaneous nerves T3–T5 Third occipital nerve C3 Posterior cutaneous branches C4–T6 Superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm C5,6 Supraclavicular nerve (from cervical plexus) C3,4 Superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm (from axillary nerve) C5,6 Posterior cutaneous nerve of arm C5,6,7,8 Medial cutaneous nerve of arm C8,T1 Medial cutaneous nerve of arm C8,T1 Anterior cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves T2–T11 Intercostobrachial nerve T2 Intercostobrachial nerve T2 Inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm C5,6 Inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm C5,6 Posterior cutaneous branches T7–T12 Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm C8,T1 Lateral cutaneous nerves T6–T11 Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm C5,6,7,8 Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm C8,T1 Superior cluneal nerves L1–L3 Medial cluneal nerves S1–S3 Anterior cutaneous branch of subcostal nerve (T12) Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm C5,6 Lateral cutaneous branch of subcostal nerve (T12) Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm C5,6 Iliohypogastric nerve L1 Iliohypogastric nerve L1 Subcostal T12 Superficial branch of radial C6,7,8 Femoral branch of genitofemoral L1,2 Inferior cluneal nerves Inguinal nerve L1 S1–S3 Palmar branch of median Palmar branch of ulnar Superficial branch of radial C7,8 Dorsal branch of ulnar C8,T1 Lateral cutaneous of thigh L2,3 Median C6,7,8 Median C6,7,8 Obturator L2,3,4 Ulnar C8, T1 Medial and intermediate cutaneous of thigh L2,3 Medial cutaneous of thigh L2,3 Lateral cutaneous of thigh L2,3 Posterior cutaneous of thigh L2,3 Infrapatellar branch of saphenous Lateral cutaneous of calf L5, S1,2 Saphenous L3,4 Saphenous L3,4 Lateral sural cutaneous nerve L5, S1,2 Sural communicating branch of common fibular Superficial fibular L4,5, S1 Sural L5, S1,2 Deep fibular Sural S1,2 17 1 This page intentionally left blank 2 BACK CONTENTS Surface anatomy Vertebral column Regional vertebrae Cervical vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae Lumbar vertebrae Sacrum Intervertebral foramina and discs Intervertebral disc problems Joints and ligaments Back musculature: surface anatomy Superficial musculature Intermediate musculature Deep musculature Back musculature: transverse section Suboccipital region Spinal nerves Spinal cord Spinal cord vasculature Venous drainage of spinal cord Meninges Spinal cord: imaging Transverse section: thoracic region Dermatomes and cutaneous nerves Tables 20 21 22 23 26 28 31 32 33 35 36 37 39 40 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 50 52 53 54 BACK • Surface anatomy Ligamentum nuchae Vertebra prominens (spinous process of CVII) Acromion of scapula Spine of scapula Inferior angle of scapula Spinous process of TXII Iliac crest Sacral dimple at posterior superior iliac spine Intergluteal cleft Surface anatomy of the back 20 Vertebral column Anterior view Posterior view Lateral view CI (atlas) CI (atlas) CI (atlas) CII (axis) CII (axis) CII (axis) Cervical vertebrae Cervical curvature CVII CVII CVII TI TI TI Intervertebral disc Thoracic vertebrae Thoracic curvature Intervertebral disc TXII TXII TXII LI LI LI Lumbar curvature LV LV Lumbar vertebrae LV Promontory Sacrum Sacrum Coccyx Coccyx Sacral/coccygeal curvature 21 2 BACK • Regional vertebrae Vertebral foramen Superior articular process Spinous process 7 cervical vertebrae (CI–CVII) Inferior articular process Vertebral body Foramen transversarium Transverse process CV vertebra Superior articular process Transverse process Facet for articulation with tubercle of rib V Vertebral foramen Inferior articular process Spinous process 12 thoracic vertebrae (TI–TXII) Demifacet for articulation with head of rib V Vertebral body Demifacet for articulation with head of rib VI TV vertebra Vertebral foramen Superior articular process Spinous process Pedicle 5 lumbar vertebrae (LI–LV) Transverse process Vertebral body Inferior articular process Sacrum (5 fused sacral vertebrae I–V) Coccyx (3–4 fused coccygeal vertebrae I–IV) LIII vertebra 22 Cervical vertebrae Anterior tubercle of CI (atlas) Posterior tubercle of CI (atlas) CI (atlas) Anterior tubercle of CI (atlas) Lateral atlanto-axial joint Dens of CII (axis) Posterior tubercle of CI (atlas) Body of CII (axis) CII (axis) Intervertebral disc Spinous process of CII (axis) Zygapophysial joint CIII Spinal cord Column of articular processes CIV Intervertebral foramen Vertebra prominens (spinous process of CVII) Vertebral body of CVII CV Anterior tubercle of CVI (carotid tubercle) Spinous processes CVI Cervical region of vertebral column.
Thoracic vertebrae (lateral view) T2-weighted MR image in sagittal plane (compression fracture TIX) Body Superior articular process Vertebral foramen Superior vertebral notch Superior articular facet Demifacet for articulation with head of rib III Demifacet for articulation with head of rib III Facet for articulation with tubercle of rib III Body Pedicle Superior articular facet Spinous process Demifacet for articulation with head of rib IV Lamina Transverse process Spinous process TIII vertebra (superior view) 26 Facet for articulation with tubercle of rib III Inferior vertebral notch Inferior articular facet Inferior articular process TIII vertebra (lateral view) Thoracic vertebrae Superior articular facet Vertebral body of TI Transverse process Lamina Vertebral body of TV Inferior articular process Spinous process TIII vertebra (posterior view) Rib Thoracic aorta Spinous process Vertebral body Head of rib Transverse process Intervertebral disc space Pedicle Vertebral body of TXII Thoracic region of vertebral column.
Gray's Atlas of Anatomy, 2e by Richard Drake PhD FAAA, A. Wayne Vogl PhD FAAA, Adam W. M. Mitchell MB BS FRCS FRCR, Richard Tibbitts, Paul Richardson